Review of Past Energy Studies (draft)

Controlling the movement of air and heat through windows.
davidgibney
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Review of Past Energy Studies (draft)

Postby davidgibney » January 10th, 2012, 11:39 pm

Energy Studies
The following summaries of past window energy studies were researched, compiled and written by David Gibney.

Title:
Date: Jan. 24, 2011
Reference:
Summary:

The most extensive and current study was completed by the Center for Resource Conservation in Boulder Colorado. January 24, 2011. This study is the model that we are trying to achieve, testing several different window sceneries. The testing was done on site in a house in Boulder Colorado using the Blower Door system. Ten different systems were tested including a new Vinyl window unit. The system that worked the best was by weatherstripping the double hung window unit and then adding a fiberglass storm window with a insulated frame and Low E-glass. The study also included testing in a window laboratory facility developed for the study. Resfen software developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was used to estimate the summer and winter energy performance of six other cites across the country. The conclusion of this research is that it is possible to improve the overall energy performance of existing window systems by well over four fold through repairs, weatherization and installing storm windows with insulated frames.

Title:
Date: 1994
Reference:
Online: http://ncptt.nps.gov/testing-the-energy ... t-1996-08/
(accessed 4/12/2012)
Summary:
1994 A study was funded by the State of Vermont Division for Historic Preservation based on a grant Received from the national Center for Preservation Technology of the U.S. National Park Service. The test was conducted by Brad James, Andrew Shapiro, Steve Flanders and Dr. David Hemenway. The testing was done on double Hung Windows and storm windows in the State Vermont. The study was done to determine the feasibility of renovation and upgrading Historic Windows to see that its thermal performance would be equivalent to a new replacement window. The test was based on a fan pressurization test on 151 field-tested windows containing of 64 original condition windows and 87 windows of varying upgrades. Estimated annual savings per window due to renovations, weatherstripping and storm windows ranged from $12.40 to 16.60 per window per year. The study concluded that the thermal performance of an upgraded existing windows and adding storm windows can equal the thermal performance of a replacement window. The study was an evaluation of different upgrades for the 151 windows, rather than measuring the before and after efficiency gains of the renovated windows. This was one of the extensive studies that have been done on historic windows.

Title:
Date:
Reference:
Summary:
A study was completed in Ann Arbor MI by Nick Helmholt, the study was funded by GreenovationTV and the Clean Energy Coalition. The house had sixteen double hung window units. The windows were tested by the Blower Door method before and after window upgrades with weatherstripping and storm windows. Prior to the upgrades the blower door measured air leakage of 4,400 Cubic Feet per minute. This rate of air flow was equivalent to leaving a 241 square inch window open year round.
The second test conducted after the upgrades measured air leakage of 1,530 cubic feet per minute. The rate of air flow was equivalent to leaving a 84 square inch window open year round.
The third test was conducted after low E storm windows were installed along with the weather stripping. The blower door test measured air leakage of 1,330 cubic Feet per minute. This rate of air flow was equivalent to leaving a 73 square inch window open year round.
Results from the upgrades was substantial for the Historic Windows. The testing estimated the payback period for upgrades at 3 to 5 years.

Title: Old Wood Window Replacement Window Energy Analysis
Date:
Reference:
Summary:
Keith Haberern, Professional Engineer in New Jersey, performed an energy audit study related to Historic Windows called “Old” Wood Window Replacement Window Energy Analysis The study showed the following results. A storm window over a single-pane original gives a reading of U-value of 0.50 and a new double hung window unit gives a reading of U-value of 0.58. The original wood window unit is 15% better that the new window unit. The payback period for the new windows is 40.5 years. The payback period for the storm window is 4.5 years

Title:
Date: 2010
Reference:
Summary:
A Home Energy Audit was conducted August 5th, 2010 by a home owner Barry Goodinson on his personal house. The double hung window units were leaking a mass amount of air in from the exterior. A Blower Door audit test was completed, which produced major air currents into the house. A second test was completed after the upgrades were completed with the windows, weather stripping and storm windows installed. The rate of air exchange for the house was .35, which means that 35% of the homes inside air is replaced with air from the exterior. This reading is good because it means that 1.4/hour which is a good trade off of inside air with the outside on a per hour basis. The purpose of this study was to address the issue of the importance of fresh air into a dwelling.

Title:
Date: 1997
Reference:
Summary:
Andrew Shapior and Brad James did performance testing on Historic Windows verses new thermo-pane Window units. The testing took place in New England 1997. The testing consisted of 64 window and 87 windows that had been renovated/upgraded by area contractors. Their findings were based on a infiltration test method on ASTM E7 83-93. The difference in annual energy savings between renovating old sash and replacing with new retro-fit was very small and again the payback period is 40 to 70 years for the new window.

Title: Storm Windows Save Energy
Date: August 2000
Reference:
Summary:
Storm Windows Save Energy by Colleen Turrell. August 2000. Andre Desjarlais, Phil Childs and Kenneth Childs and Jeffrey Christian. Storms windows were installed over a Historic Window unit. The test results showed that the energy flow was substantially reduced by the installation of the storm windows. There were even more substantial gains with weatherstripping added to the upper and lower sash. This study proved that with minimal upgrades can equal replacement windows.


Title: Analysis of the Thermal Performance of Repaired and Replaced Windows
Date:
Reference:
Summary:
An Analysis of the Thermal Performance of Repaired and Replaced Windows was a study completed by Robert Score and Bradford S. Carpenter. The analysis showed Significant differences in Thermal behavior between the repaired window and the replacement window mock up. The repaired window experienced more solar heat gain than the new modern window with low –E glass installed. The original window units with weather stripping and storm windows performed as well as the new thermo-pane window unit.

Title: Thermal Performance of Historic Windows
Date: 2008
Reference:
Summary:
Thermal Performance of Historic Windows was done be Chris Wood member of the English Heritage. Completed in 2008, this study was conducted using a fan pressurization testing on double hung window units The testing of the existing windows was done prior to the installation of the weatherstripping and storm windows. After the weatherstripping was added to the sash and storm windows were installed the testing equaled the same U-value reading as good if not better than replacement windows.

Title: Thermal Performance of traditional Windows: Timber Sash Windows
Date: June 2009
Reference:
Summary:
A study was done June 2009 by Dr Paul Baker, Glasgow Caledonian University Research, into the Thermal Performance of traditional Windows: Timber Sash Windows. The study was done testing double hung window units prior to weatherstripping, storm windows and interior drapes and blinds. The study showed that applying these treatments will equal the performance of a new replacement window.


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Date:
Reference:
Summary:
A study was completed through the National Research Council Canada by J.R Sasaki and A.G. Wilson. Testing was completed on Wood double hung window units, weatherstripping and storm windows were installed. The test results showed a substantial change in the air infiltration and rated the weatherization treatment to almost equal the U value of a replacement window.


Title:
Date: December 30, 2008
Reference:
Summary:
A study was completed on the windows Lincoln Hall, University of Illinois December 30, 2008. A extensive study was conducted by Bailey Edward Design. The results from the study was to repair, weather strip the windows and install Storm windows in the openings. This research report was very extensive but the end result after the findings was to remove all the existing windows with newly constructed thermo-pane sash that are believed to be maintenance free.


Title: Intergrated heat Flow in Windows
Date: July 1978
Reference:
Summary:
McGrew, Dr. Jay L. David p McGrew and George p. Yeagle. “Intergrated heat Flow in Windows” a report to the energy Research Foundation/ July 1978. The study was conducted in Denver Colorado using computer modeling circa 1978 which was the precursor to today’s RESFEN software for analyze Historic Windows. The study primarily focused on heat flow through single pane windows verses double pane.


Title: Thermal Performance Of Historic Windows
Date:
Reference:
Summary:
There also is a study about the process of testing Historic Windows by Chris Wood.

Title:
Date:
Reference:
Summary:
A study was performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkley California. Their study indicates that if Low e glass is used in the storm window unit over a Historic double hung window unit it will equal the U-value of a new replacement window.

Title:
Date:
Reference:
Summary:
The study that was completed by Center for Resource Conservation found that a wood storm window has an R-value that is three times less than that of insulated fiberglass or insulated vinyl storm window. The study also showed that by adding a storm window showed improvement s in energy performance over the double hung alone of 96%. The study did indicate that vinyl storm windows are a bad choice due to their movement within a window opening and the short life span they have.

BirminghamPoint
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Re: Review of Past Energy Studies (draft)

Postby BirminghamPoint » April 12th, 2012, 1:40 pm

Here's a link to a page containing a PDF rendering of the NCPTT study for the State of Vermont Division for Historic Preservation, just as a reference for any one wanting to read this publication: http://ncptt.nps.gov/testing-the-energy-performance-of-wood-windows-in-cold-climates-a-report-to-the-state-of-vermont-division-for-historic-preservation-agency-of-commerce-and-community-development-1996-08/

johnleeke
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Re: Review of Past Energy Studies (draft)

Postby johnleeke » April 12th, 2012, 2:19 pm

John, excellent. I'll put that as a reference above. Thanks!
John
Standards Co-Founder
Standards Editor

http://www.HistoricHomeWorks.com

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Re: Review of Past Energy Studies (draft)

Postby BirminghamPoint » September 1st, 2012, 12:03 pm

Here's an article http://www.homeenergy.org/show/article/nav/windows/id/1807 that was just published in Home Energy Magazine comparing infiltration rates of old wooden double hung windows weatherstripped with vinyl V-Strip and metallic v-strip. Conclusion was that metal was superior, though more costly. Requires a subscription to get past the intro, but I've posted the link here as a reference anyway...


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